- Lesson1 Finding Fossil Man.
- Lesson2 Spare that spider.
- Lesson3 Matterhorn Man.
- Lesson4 Seeing hands.
- Lesson5 Youth .
- Lesson6 The sporting spirit.
- Lesson7 Bats.
- Lesson8 Trading standards.
- Lesson9 Royal Espionage.
- Lesson10 Silicon valley.
- Lesson11 How to Grow Old .
- Lesson12 Banks and their customers.
- Lesson13 The Search for Oil .
- Lesson14 The Butterfly Effect.
- Lesson15 Secrecy in Industry.
- Leaaon16 The modern city.
- Lesson17 A Man-made Disease.
- Lesson18 Porpoises.
- Lesson19 The Stuff of Dreams.
- Lesson20 Snake poison.
- Lesson21 William S. Hart and the Early Western Film .
- Lesson22 Knowledge and progress.
- Lesson23 Bird Flight.
- Lesson24 Beatuy.
- Lesson25 Non-Auditory Effects of Noise.
- Lesson26 The past life of the earth.
- Lesson27 The vasa.
- Lesson28 Patients and doctors.
- Lesson29 The Hovercraft.
- Lesson30 Exploring the sea-floor.
- Lesson31 The Sculptor Speaks.
- Lesson32 Galileo reborn.
- Lesson33 Education.
- Lesson34 Adolescence.
- Lesson35 Space Odyssey.
- Lesson36 The cost of government.
- Lesson37 The Process of Ageing.
- Lesson38 Water and the traveller.
- Lesson39 What Every Writer Wants.
- Lesson40 Waves.
- Lesson41 Training Elephants.
- Lesson42 Recording an earthquake.
- Lesson43 Are There Strangers in Space.
- Lesson44 Patterns of culture.
- Lesson45 Of Men and Galaxies.
- Lesson46 Hobbies.
- Lesson47 The Great Escape .
- Lesson48 Planning a share portfolio.
Lesson44 Patterns of culture.
Lesson44 Patterns of culture.
录音：Lesson44 Patterns of culture.（美音）
录音：Lesson44 Patterns of culture.（英音）
Lesson44 Patterns of culture.单词讲解
New Word and expressions 生词和短语
Lesson44 Patterns of culture.课文讲解1
Lesson44 Patterns of culture.课文讲解2
Lesson44 Patterns of culture.课文讲解3
Lesson44 Patterns of culture.课文讲解4
Patterns of culture
First listen and then answer the following question.
What influences us from the moment of birth?
Custom has not commonly been regarded as a subject of great moment. The inner workings of our won brains we feel to be uniquely worthy of investigation, but custom, we have a way of thinking, is behaviour at its most commonplace. As a matter of fact, it is the other way around. Traditional custom, taken the world over, is a mass of detailed behaviour more astonishing than what any one person can ever evolve in individual actions, no matter how aberrant. Yet that is a rather trivial aspect of the matter. The fact of first-rate importance is the predominant role that custom plays in experience and in belief, and the very great varieties it may manifest.
No man ever looks at the world with pristine eyes. He sees it edited by a definite set of customs and institutions and ways of thinking. Even in his philosophical probing he cannot go behind these stereotypes; his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particular traditional customs. John Dewey has said in all seriousness that the part played by custom in shaping the behaviour of the individual, as against any way in which he can affect traditional custom, is as the proportion of the total vocabulary of his mother tongue against those words of his own baby talk that are taken up into the vernacular of his family. When one seriously studies the social orders that have had the opportunity to develop autonomously, the figure becomes no more than an exact and matter-of-fact observation. The life history handed down in his community. From the moment of his birth, the customs into which he is born shape his experience and behaviour. By the time he can talk, he is the little creature of his culture, and by the time he is grown and able to take part in its activities, its habits are his habits, its beliefs his beliefs, its impossibilities his impossibilities. Every child that is born into his group will share them with him, and no child born into one on the opposite side of the globe can ever achieve the thousandth part. There is no social problem it is more incumbent upon us to understand than this of the role of custom. Until we are intelligent as to its laws and varieties, the main complicating facts of human life must remain unintelligible.
The study of custom can be profitable only after certain preliminary propositions have been accepted, and some of these propositions have been violently opposed. In the first place, any scientific study requires that there be no preferential weighting of one or another of the items in the series it selects for its consideration. In all the less controversial fields, like the study of cacti or termites or the mature of nebulae, the necessary method of study is to group the relevant material and to take note of all possible variant forms and conditions. In this way, we have learned all that we know of the laws of astronomy, or of the habits of the social insects, let us say. It is only in the relevant material and to take note of all possible variant forms and conditions. In this way, we have learned all that we know of the laws of astronomy, or of the habits of the social insects, let us say. It is only in the study of man himself that the major social sciences have substituted the study of one local variation, that of Western civilization.
Anthropology was by definition impossible, as long as these distinctions between ourselves and the primitive, ourselves and the barbarian, ourselves and the pagan, held sway over people’s minds. It was necessary first to arrive at that degree of sophistication where we no longer set our own belief against our neighbour’s superstition. It was necessary to recognize that these institutions which are based on the same premises, let us say the supernatural, must be considered together, our own among the rest.
RUTH BENEDICT Patterns of Culture
New words and expressions 生词和短语
新概念英语第四册Lesson44 Patterns of culture.学习到此结束，同学们记得把课本的练习题做完留言哦。